NUKUS

ZABORAVLJENI LOUVRE NA KRAJU SVIJETA Turisti tu dolaze ponajprije zbog jezivih prizora olupina na isušenom dnu donedavno 4. najvećeg jezera na Zemlji

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    • Jutarnji.hr

  • OBJAVLJENO:
  • 21.05.2019. u 21:59

Once the world's fourth-largest inland sea with an area of 68,000 km², the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s, after the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya that fed it were diverted by Soviet Union irrigation projects. By 2004, the sea had shrunk to 25% of its original surface area, and a nearly fivefold increase in salinity had killed most of its natural flora and fauna. By 2007 it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into three separate lakes, two of which are too salty to support fish.[1] The once prosperous fishing industry has been virtually destroyed, and former fishing towns along the original shores have become ship graveyards. With this collapse has come unemployment and economic hardship. The Aral Sea is also heavily polluted, largely as the result of weapons testing, industrial projects, pesticides and fertilizer runoff. Wind-blown salt from the dried seabed damages crops, and polluted drinking water and salt- and dust-laden air cause serious public health problems. The retreat of the sea has reportedly also caused local climate change, with summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.[2] The plight of the Aral Sea is frequently described as an environmental catastrophe. There is now an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish what remains of the northern part of the Aral Sea (the Small Aral). A dam project completed in 2005 has raised the water level of this lake by two metres. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The outlook for the far larger southern part of the sea (the Large Aral) remains bleak., Image: 34507621, License: Rights-managed, Restrictions: , Model Release: no, Credit line: Profimedia, Alamy
Profimedia, Alamy

 

Avangardna umjetnost u vrijeme Staljinove strahovlade bila je strogo zabranjena kao izopačeno zastranjenje od strogih kontura državno podržanog soc-realizma, a umjetnici koji bi se oglušili završili bi u gulagu.

No, u zabačenom dijelu sjevernog Uzbekistana, daleko od poluinteligentnih činovnika državne vlasti, jedan je čovjek oko 1950. počeo skupljati kolekciju disidentske umjetnosti. Bio je to Igor Savicki, bivši električar iz dobrostojeće ruske obitelji koji je u zabačeni Nukus došao na arheološko iskapanje. Svoju strast prema avangardi na koncu je pretočio 1966. godine u osnivanje muzeja u ovom srednjeazijskom gradu, i taj muzej stoji dan-danas, iako golema kolekcija umjetnina u njemu propada zbog očajnog stanja zgrade i krova koji prokišnjava.

Savicki je stavio puno toga na kocku - neki od slikara čija je djela sakupljao bili su mučeni ili ubijeni, a mnogi su godine proveli u gulazima. Staljin je 30-ih godina zabranio svu umjetnost koja ne pripada soc-realizmu. Stilovi koji su impresionirali europske umjetnike - kubizam, futurizam, pa čak i impresionizam - stavljeni su van zakona.

Savicki se prihvatio misije spašavanja djela ruskih formalista i znao je tako putovati tri dana vlakom za Moskvu da bi obilazio obitelji tada nepoželjnih umjetnika i sakupljao djela koja su skrivali po tavanima. "Prijatelj udovica" bio mu je nadimak. Sakupljao je i mnoga djela židovskih umjetnika, ali i umjetnica. Među njima je, primjerice, crtež Nadežde Boravaje koji prikazuje izgladnjele zatvorenike, mrtvu djecu i žene s identifikacijskim brojevima. Još 1982. godine nije se smjelo otkriti da ovaj prizor ne predstavlja prizor iz nacističkog konc-logora, već prizor iz sovjetskog gulaga. Sliku 'Bik' Vladimira Lisenka, koji je utamničen, Savicki je morao ukloniti iz postava kad mu je došao KGB. No, avangardni kustos doskočio je cenzorima te je preimenovao sliku u 'Fašizam napreduje' i ponovno je izložio već sljedeći dan.

Njegov muzej danas predstavlja pravu riznicu umjetnosti koja bi u rukama međunarodnih trgovaca umjetninama vrijedila milijune. No, zgrada je u jadnom stanju, a ni u zabačenom Nukusu nema ničega što bi privuklo posjetitelje, čak ni restorana.

Profimedia
 

Kako je uzbečko ministarstvo kulture raspisalo međunarodni poziv za novog ravnatelja galerije koja udomljuje drugu po veličini kolekciju ruske avangarde na svijetu, kolumnistica Guardiana Suzanne Moore oduševljeno se uputila u tu meku "zabranjene umjetnosti".

U svojem članku opisuje kako je shvatila da to područje privlači posjetitelje jedino "turizmom katastrofe": Aralsko jezero, nekoć četvrto po veličini na svijetu, smanjilo se zbog sovjetskog sustava navodnjavanja i kemikalija koje su u njega upumpavane. Sva riba u jezeru je pomrla, a posjetitelje dočeka "užasavajuće fotogeničan krajolik hrđavih brodova na isušenom dnu jezera koje izgleda kao Mjesečeva površina", piše Moore i dodaje da vjetrovi raznose toksičnu prašinu ovim područjem s visokom stopom raka i smrti novorođene djece.

Aral Sea drought. Beached boat in a part of the Aral Sea which was once covered in water. The Aral Sea lies between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. It was once the fourth largest inland sea in the world, with a surface area of 66,000 square kilometres. Extensive use of irrigation schemes upstream on the sea's feed rivers have drastically reduced the lake's water supply. The lake only loses water by evaporation, but its volume still shrank by 76% between 1960 & 1995. A 300% increase in salinity has killed many of the fish. The lake's shores are barren & largely uninhabited. Exposed beds of salt and dust are the source of huge toxic dust storms. Photographed in 1990., Image: 102181898, License: Rights-managed, Restrictions: , Model Release: no, Credit line: Profimedia, Sciencephoto RM
Profimedia, Sciencephoto RM

Once the world's fourth-largest inland sea with an area of 68,000 km², the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s, after the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya that fed it were diverted by Soviet Union irrigation projects. By 2004, the sea had shrunk to 25% of its original surface area, and a nearly fivefold increase in salinity had killed most of its natural flora and fauna. By 2007 it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into three separate lakes, two of which are too salty to support fish.[1] The once prosperous fishing industry has been virtually destroyed, and former fishing towns along the original shores have become ship graveyards. With this collapse has come unemployment and economic hardship. The Aral Sea is also heavily polluted, largely as the result of weapons testing, industrial projects, pesticides and fertilizer runoff. Wind-blown salt from the dried seabed damages crops, and polluted drinking water and salt- and dust-laden air cause serious public health problems. The retreat of the sea has reportedly also caused local climate change, with summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.[2] The plight of the Aral Sea is frequently described as an environmental catastrophe. There is now an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish what remains of the northern part of the Aral Sea (the Small Aral). A dam project completed in 2005 has raised the water level of this lake by two metres. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The outlook for the far larger southern part of the sea (the Large Aral) remains bleak., Image: 34507621, License: Rights-managed, Restrictions: , Model Release: no, Credit line: Profimedia, Alamy
Profimedia, Alamy
 

Uzbekistan se svejedno nada ukinućem viza privući turiste u gradove na nekadašnjem Putu svile. Jedinstvena umjetnička kolekcija u Nukusu toliko je zabačena da je teško povjerovati u buduću masovnu navalu ljubitelja umjetnosti, ali ne treba smetnuti s uma da je upravo ta udaljenost od svega zacijelo jedini razlog zašto je kolekcija uspjela preživjeti staljinističku eru.

No, također, ne treba zaboraviti da se radi o umjetnosti za koju su umjetnici doslovno umirali, a brižno ju je sakupljao čovjek obuzet misijom da sačuva njihova djela.

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