SVIJET OPASNIH BANDI

FOTO: NAJSMRTONOSNIJE MJESTO NA SVIJETU Nasilje je jedini način na koji se ovdje može preživjeti...

    AUTOR:
    • Tomislav Kukec

  • OBJAVLJENO:
  • 14.07.2019. u 21:36

Jan Sochor

 

“U protekla dva desetljeća Centralna Amerika postala je najsmrtonosnije mjesto na svijetu koje trenutačno nije ratna zona. Od 2004. do 2009. godine u Salvadoru je ubijeno više ljudi po stanovniku nego u Iraku, a zbog kriminalnih aktivnosti dviju najvećih bandi u toj državi, Mara Salvatrucha i Bande s 18 ulice (18th street gang), te njihovih brutalnih ratova, ovo malo područje na obali Tihog oceana upalo je u stravičnu spiralu nasilja, ubijanja i smrti.”

Tim riječima počinje još jedan uzbudljivi fotoesej češkog fotoreportera Jana Sochora, čovjeka koji se ne libi ući ni u najopasnije kutke svijeta kako bi donio fotografiju, novinarsku informaciju ili osvrt.

Sochorove fotografije u Nedjeljnom smo objavili prije nekoliko tjedana. Tada smo tiskali njegovu ekskluzivnu priču o web-prostitutkama iz Medellina u Kolumbiji, a sada nam je otkrio kako je bilo kretati se vjerojatno najopasnijim i najmračnijim kutkom svijeta. Pritom pokazuje gotovo nevjerojatnu dozu ležernosti, kao da se kretao nekim turističkim središtem, primjećujemo.

Young men, supposed gang members, lie handcuffed in the Police pick-up truck in San Salvador, El Salvador, 19 May 2011. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

Djeca ponavljaju naučeno

“Biti fotoreporter u Salvadoru može biti opasno, ali samo ako se ne držiš pravila. Naravno da je preporučljivo izbjegavati određene zone i nije pametno uključivati se u lokalne sukobe, no toga se moraš držati i u Riu, Bogoti, Mexico Cityju...”, kaže nam Jan.

Otkriva kako se cijela priča razvijala u više linija. Dio fotografija napravio je patrolirajući danju i noću s lokalnom policijom.

Salvadorean policemen, members of the specialized anti-gang unit (Unidad Antipandillas), receive an order on the police base before leaving for an operation in San Salvador, El Salvador, 19 December 2013. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

“To je bio samo jedan dio, kockica u mozaiku i shvatio sam da tako neću shvatiti što se doista događa. Počeo sam surađivati s nevladinim organizacijama koje rade na tom području. Otišao sam na hitni prijam bolnice, gledao kako članovi bandi umiru od prostrjelnih rana, snimao kako se njihove žrtve bore za život, razgovarao s članovima njihovih obitelji. Posjetio sam dva zatvora i snimao osuđenike za najbrutalnije zločine, a neke manje opasne zone istraživao sam potpuno sâm”, prisjeća se Sochor.

Shvatio je tada kako svaka banda ima svoj kodeks i prepoznatljive simbole koje tetoviraju na tijelo. Jednom kad si ušao u neku organizaciju i ugravirao njihov znak na svoje tijelo, njihov si do kraja života, što može biti vrlo kratko jer se kršenje pravila bande ne opominje, nego kažnjava egzekucijom.

A young man fights for his life after being stabbed in the chest with a knife by a gang member in San Salvador, El Salvador, 12 May 2011. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

Jedne je noći svjedočio oružanom obračunu među članovima bandi i sudjelovao u policijskoj potjeri usred noći. Trčali su za kriminalcima te se zatekli u mračnoj uličici. Svuda uokolo bila je potpuna tišina.

“Tada sam shvatio da jedinu buku stvara metalna kopča (karabiner) moje fotografske torbe. Pokušavali smo biti neprimjetni, a moja torba odzvanjala je kao crkveno zvono”, kaže Jan koji je tada shvatio da i najmanji komadić metala može biti pitanje života ili smrti.

A local gang leader (palabrero) of the Mara Salvatrucha gang shows a hand sign, representing his gang, in the cell of a detention center in San Salvador, El Salvador, 20 February 2014. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

Borba za opstanak

Iako zvuči pomalo kao iz američkih filmova, Jan je odlučio snimati salvadorske bande kada je tijekom putovanja Središnjom Amerikom upoznao mladića s tetoviranom suzom ispod oka. Svaka suza - jedan oduzeti život.

“Nije lako objasniti tko su članovi bandi, nema crno-bijelog odgovora. Uglavnom dolaze iz siromašnih obitelji, djetinjstvo provode u krajnjoj bijedi i vrlo su slabo obrazovani. Da, služe se nasiljem kako bi došli do onoga što im treba, prvenstveno novca i statusa, no morate shvatiti da među njima stalno vlada rat bez pravila. Nasilje je jedini način na koji možeš preživjeti na ulici. Mlađi, tinejdžeri, naprosto ponavljaju naučeno ponašanje koje su vidjeli kod starijih. S druge strane, siromaštvo samo po sebi ne bi smjelo opravdavati ubijanje. Ali ja ih ne osuđujem jer nisam hodao u njihovim cipelama. Vidio sam da Salvadorom vladaju očaj i beznađe koje nije rezervirano samo za nižu klasu. Mladi ljudi iz siromašnih četvrti Salvadora nemaju nikakvu budućnost i to je glavni razlog zašto se okreću kriminalu.”

Armed policemen patrol in the gang neighborhood in San Salvador, El Salvador, 12 May 2011. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

Glavni izvor prihoda kriminalnih bandi Salvadora su iznuda i reketiranje - kafića, kozmetičkih salona, trgovina i obrta. Manji, opasniji dio bavi se trgovinom ljudi, a gotovo svi su uključeni u dilanje droge. Jan primjećuje kako je važan dio čitave priče krajnje korumpirana vlada koja omogućava da se za sitan novac potplate dužnosnici i policajci, stvarajući na taj način platformu za bavljenje kriminalom.

A former member of the 18th Street Gang (M-18) seen on his way to the church in San Salvador, El Salvador, 12 May 2011. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

Iako je fotografije objavio javno i s njima bio u raznim medijima, Jan se ne boji odmazde kriminalaca. Ističe da se u Salvador često i rado vraća te je s brojnim članovima bandi čak i u prijateljskim odnosima. Svi su oni, kaže, fotografirani uz vlastiti pristanak, a razlog za to poprilično je banalan.

A deadly injured gang member, after being hit by three bullets, is seen lying on an emergency room bed in a state hospital in San Salvador, El Salvador, 14 February 2014. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

“To su ljudi koji nemaju što izgubiti. Život je za njih borba za opstanak, a to hoće li netko znati čime se bave potpuno im je nebitno. Bande iz Salvadora imaju prečih stvari od razmišljanja o medijima, jednostavno moraju svakoga dana pronaći način kako da prežive i ne budu ustrijeljeni”, zaključuje ovaj jedinstveni češki fotoreporter.

Young men, supposed gang members, kneel on the floor handcuffed and detained by Police in San Salvador, El Salvador, 19 May 2011. During the last two decades, Central America has become the deadliest region in the world that is not at war. According to the UN statistics, more people per capita were killed in El Salvador than in Iraq, in recent years. Due to the criminal activities of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street Gang (M-18), the two major street gangs in El Salvador, the country has fallen into the spiral of fear, violence and death. Thousands of Mara gang members, both on the streets or in the overcrowded prisons, organize and run extortions, distribution of drugs and kidnappings. Tattooed armed young men, mainly from the poorest neighborhoods, fight unmerciful turf battles with their coevals from the rival gang, balancing between life and death every day. Twenty years after the devastating civil war, a social war has paralyzed the nation of El Salvador.
Jan Sochor
 

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